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Webinar organised with the NPC of the Indian Government

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Birdseye Energy Consulting GmbH gave a webinar on two “Best Available Technologies” (BAT), which was organised by The National Productivity Council of India ( The NPC was established in the year 1958, is an autonomous organization under Department for Promotion of Industry & Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The webinar was mainly about the following two BATs:


    ⁃    Demand Side Management (DSM) in combination with chillers

    ⁃    Replacement of fans driven by a motor & belt through a direct drive fan (mono bloc)

The two BATs will be treated in the other two articles in this issue of the newsletter. Moreover you will find the two simulations on a spreadsheet, as promised during the webinar.

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The next issue there will be space for the other BAT (about fans) that was explained in this webinar.

If you can't wait, I invite you to look at the webinar by clicking on the image left, so that you can look at both BATs.

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BAT, European regulation and IEA statistics

In addition to the two technical articles, I gave another short presentation, explaining the more legal aspects of the BATs. 


In other words, how the European Union use these BATs to define reference values for industries that want to be allowed to carry on their activities in the member states. This will be explained here. Please open the PDF file next here.


    ⁃    The European Directive 96/91/EC was conceived by the European Commission (EC) from the results of the IPCC or Intergovernmental Panel For Climate Change. The EC wrote the Directive to regulate the production of certain productive sectors with respect for the environment. Freedom was given to the Member States to implement this Directive on their territories. The permits to produce were based on Best Available Technologies (BAT). This was done by looking, which parameters for emission, energy consumption and pollution would be reached by an enterprise that was working with BAT. In order to determine these parameters, the EC organised discussions between experts from the Member States, which BATs would be considered for each industrial sector.

    ⁃    The organisation for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Sevilla, Spain, organised the information exchange about the BATs and wrote the results in the Bat REFerence documents (BREF) with link In this link is a long list for all the industrial activities that are considered. One example for the production of PVC is given in the PDF file.

    ⁃    Another subject in the presentation are the indicators on energy efficiency for 38 countries, published by the International Energy Agency ( For all the Member States of the European Union and a number of other countries, among which not India, four pages with energy efficiency diagrams are given. An example in the PDF file is given for Switzerland. As a conclusion, a recommendation was given to the listeners from India to look if the approach with a set of rules and statistics is followed in their country and if it can be useful.

Moreover, I mentioned that I will treat every 2 weeks in my newsletter 1 or 2 BATs, starting with already from the first issue.


Finally I gave the opinion that Energy Managers should be the key persons that drive the Energy Transition in industry: the task of bringing complex and large consumers of energy on the next level will need tailor made solutions and requires therefore a large number of Energy Managers that are familiar with these consumers.

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BAT Webinar general.pdf
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BAT 1: demand-side management and chillers.

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BAT Webinar DSM with chillers NPC India.pdf
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Simulation Ice Storage.xlsx
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The first short presentation was about the combination of the Demand Side Management (DSM) with another way of storing cold energy.


Please open the file on the left.

I started with the situation in India:

  1. There is a fast development of Renewable Energy, mostly of the two volatile types Solar and Wind.

  2. With the weak grid (in comparison with present and future demand) and in various regions even absent, it is a good moment to decide between heavy investment in a grid that just follows the demand or more flexible approaches.

  3. Much of the electricity is used for cooling.

  4. India seems focused on electrification of the energy mix, fuels seem to go into the background, the last years.

How this situation asks for DSM:

  1. DSM is a flexible solution for a weak grid. It is when not only the supplier adapts the power to the demand, but also the consumer adapts the time of consumption to the market. In the figure on slide 2 one sees that in order to avoid a critical level, the consumer can shift the time of operation of some installation. If that is not possible, a storage can do this time shift.

  2. Everybody is aware that DSM is a needed solution to avoid more black-outs. ​

  3. Less aware is the consumer about the opportunities:

    • Protecting the own enterprise;​

    • Saving on the bill.

Slide 3 is on the technology of storage.

Everybody is talking about storing energy in batteries, but when we see from the first slide that much electric energy (> 40%?) is eventually converted in an electric chiller, then the storage can be done directly in a cold storage, e.g. an ice storage.

The advantages are clearly stated on slide 3. About the investment: it was difficult to get prices per kWh, like they are available in statistics for Li-Ion batteries. I assume 180$/kWh of capacity and between 12 and 20% of that for ice storage, which depends much on the size. The last one "Big power without big chiller" refers to the need of a chiller that must be dimensioned on the peak demand of cold, even if that is only few hours per year. That is a bottleneck.

Slide 4 shows a 1-day spreadsheet simulation of a consumer with a chiller and a cold storage. The chiller has max. 150 kW cold power and the consumer demands 200 kW in the afternoon. This simulation shows the opportunities of DSM mentioned above:

  • Protection: the ice storage will continue to give 200 kW even with a black out:

  • Saving on the bill: the diagram shows how energy is stored during the cheap tariff period. It appears to me that the evening hours are expensive in India. The chiller is switched off in those hours. 


The subscriber to ​the Newsletter can download the spreadsheet file on the left and make simulations of the own situation. There are also prices per kWh of ice storage, which the user can change. These prices are calculated as a function of the size of the storage. This can also be changed by the user.

Slide 5 shows how to make the situation with the DSM and ice storage even better, by using dynamic tariffs of electrical energy (to negotiate with the own or another energy supplier) and by using an innovative technology, which I didn't see around but discussed with an important Indian chiller company.

  • Dynamic pricing allows to exploit still more the extreme tariffs on the spot and day-ahead market for electricity. The extreme low tariffs can be used to put the chiller and storage at maximal regime. This flexibility should improve still more the profitability of the ice storage and is also better for the community, because you are more incentivised to adapt with more precision to the exact moments of extreme stress and calmness on the grid.

  • The technological proposal is to put an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) on the chiller, instead of driving it with an electric motor. This will relieve the grid and supply cold during a black out. The heat will be led into an absorption chiller so that the fuel is nearly completely used. The combustion gases can increase the temperature of the water from the motor, which is not really high enough for a good efficiency of the chiller. A modest generator on the same axis can even give some electricity for pumps, fans and other emergency users during the blackout, or to charge electrical batteries. Together with an ice storage, the ICE will not have to start/stop often, which will increase efficiency and lifetime. I am sorry that the ICE can be confused with the ice (in the storage) but if you touch it, you will feel the difference!

Slide 6 proposes experiments in India with the 3 presented innovations:

  1. Storing energy in ice banks instead of in batteries;

  2. Using Dynamic Tariffs;

  3. Using an ICE driven chiller.

The best way to start is to look for users, where the Security of Cold Supply is essential. The simulation spreadsheet on the left doesn't show a very attractive ratio between yearly savings and the investment. Even if the Net Present Value is very interesting (and I like the NPV much better than the Payback Time), it is better to start with users, that are anxious about black outs. Hotels, hospitals and food distribution will suffer severely if they cannot have continuous cooling. It suffices to imagine if tons of food will have to be discarded. Also some industries like food or pharma will make good candidates. 

It was interesting to hear during the Question Round of the webinar how the infrastructure problem for the Dynamic Pricing could be solved. I responded by proposing an initial experiment with a cooperation between an industry and a supplier. The best is to look first to: 

and see if something similar is offered in the region. This German website is in English and explains how even retail users can have 96 different tariffs per day instead of only 3, and with much deeper "discounts" for who purchases energy at the right moment.

Back to our experiments: if they are promising for a couple of projects (it would be good to diversify the consumers between several sectors, like above), then more of the same consumers can be invited to copy the experience. Obviously it is important to make a Measurement and Verification Plan for the experimental projects, because there is much to tell about after this experiment and realistic data must be presented to the market.

It is to be expected these 3 components or also only 2 of them fit so well to each other, that nice pilot projects can be started. Moreover, in case of success, there are many consumers where the concept can be cloned. There are many consumers, where cold production is essential.

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Energy efficiency jobs and the recovery

IEA article job market Energy Manager -
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The International Energy Agency ( states in its article “Energy efficiency jobs and the recovery” on that Energy Efficiency is to become one of the largest job markets in several countries. In USA and EU, it is estimated to be now 0.5 - 1 %. This is no surprise for me, as Energy Efficiency is labor intensive: every situation is different. This trend should be increased, as it would spray the multiple benefits of Energy Efficiency onto our future: saving money; increasing comfort and protecting the climate. However, some dark clouds are in the sky. The Covid-19 crisis endangers funds for this sector because much money is going to relief funds. That is the difference between  important and urgent matters. But let’s be careful here: jobs created in this sector will last longer. Especially the Energy Manager has a key role as the specialist that is in most cases working for one employer, knows the situation there well and can hunt one Energy Conservation Opportunity after the other. It is the job of the future. How can we help this trend? The Italian law of 1991, prescribing a “Responsabile per l’Energia” for each organisation with a consumption above X? Or like the Dutch “Milieupolitie”, prescribing the implementation of Energy Conservation Opportunities if the payback time is under 5 years? What will drive the spreading of the yeast (Energy Managers) into the bread (Energy Transition) in the best way, without causing weird effects like ploughing Energy Efficiency into the task list of unaware employees that are already busy 110%?

    ⁃    In the first place it is a job that needs a feeling of engagement with sustainable development. It is good that many young people have this feeling. But why are so few Swiss students enrolling in the course of “Umwelt und Energietechniker” (Environmental and Energy Technician) of the evening school near Zürich, where I teach? What does it mean that on a website about the activities of an energy manager in the USA (at can be found definitely interesting salaries for all states of the USA? The median, bottom and top salaries in all the States are shown in a table. I think even the bottom values are not bad. Maybe also this incentive is necessary to lead the most courageous people in this rather new and difficult profession.

    ⁃    I would like to know your opinion on the way to have enough Energy Managers in our world and challenge you to write to if you have an opinion on that or a story to tell about that. It can also be that you don’t agree with the opinion that we need more Energy Managers. Well, express yourself and share it with us. Who knows, with your permission I may put your opinion into the next newsletter or in one of my blogs.

    ⁃    If this subject resonates with you, please visit the beautiful link tree at and click on the leaf “Newsletter”. Or click on the image on the left side.

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